Third graders have acquired a wide range of skills in their
previous classrooms and are ready to build on the foundations
they have laid. They work to deepen their understanding of the
basics and add more complex multiplication and division. They
practice estimating, measuring and the description of 2 and 3
dimensional figures. They work on problem solving and venture
into probabilities and mathematical reasoning.
Now that they have mastered the numbers to 1000, third grade
math can take them to 10,000 or even 100,000. They learn more
about the extended forms of numbers and place values. Rounding
up and rounding down are used to improve knowledge of place values,
as is expanded notation. Roman numerals are introduced and the
students compare them with the decimal system.
Multiplication tables are memorized up to the number 10. Students learn the
commutative and distributive properties of multiplication and
demonstrate competency by modeling, or drawing the figures, and
skip counting. They learn how to do division problems and are
taught about the inverse relationship with multiplication and
how they can check their work by doing the inverse computation.
The special properties of "0" and "1" in multiplication and division
are memorized and can be demonstrated. Word problems with more
than one type of computation are introduced.
Fractions are modeled, compared and ordered. Third graders are
taught about how fractions can represent all of a whole or more
than one or less than the whole. They use and understand the number
line in regard to fractions and can show equivalencies using real
world examples such as pizza, tiles or football fields. They can
add, subtract, multiply and divide fractions using common denominators
or numerators. They have an understanding of decimals and know
that fractions and decimals are different ways to represent the
same idea. Students can translate a word problem into symbols
and can solve the problem. Third graders are introduced to converting
simple units into symbolic form.
In measurement and geometry, third graders are introduced to
new vocabulary and concepts including right angles, perimeter,
area and volume. They learn to strategize to use already learned
concepts along with these new ones to solve problems. The students
learn to estimate perimeter and volume using American and metric
units of measure and classroom tools. Children learn types of
triangles by learning the properties of angles and can identify
and classify polygons by their attributes. They learn the differences
between squares, rectangles and parallelograms and can describe
them by their properties. Students recognize volume as a characteristic
of three-dimensional objects and can describe cones, spheres,
pyramids and more. Time and temperature as measurements and math
are taken to the next level, the Celsius scale is introduced and
a.m. and p.m. can be differentiated.
When considering the math strands of statistics, probability
and data analysis, third graders can use reasonable estimates
and probability experiments to predict future results.
They use bar graphs, experimentation and past records to predict
future outcomes. The students summarize and organize the data
and the results and can use different methods to display them.
Third graders use mathematical reasoning to analyze problems,
discard unnecessary information, prioritize and sequence relevant
information and solve problems. They use prior knowledge and results
to attack more difficult problems and apply known strategies to
resolve more complex issues.
These students make precise calculations and can find specific
answers to problems and they can use their accumulated skills
to reason and support their solutions. They use symbols, words,
graphs, tables, drawings and more to show proof of their work
and solutions. Third graders also take what they have learned,
adapt it to other disciplines and apply that knowledge to solve
new, similar problems.